The blood sugar level is defined by the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the simple sugar, and thus belongs to the group of carbohydrates. The blood sugar levels are measured in the units mg / dl or, more commonly in mmol / l. In a healthy adult, the normal values in the fasted state, i.e. in the morning measurement before breakfast, are about 60 to 110 mg / dl. After a high-carb meal, this value rises to 160 mg / dl, then two hours later, it should be decreased to a maximum of 140 mg / dl.
The pancreas produces two hormones in order to regulate these blood sugar levels in our body. One of these is glucagon. It is released if the amount of glucose in the blood is too low. It ensures that glycogen, a multiple sugar, is broken down into the simple sugars, making it accessible to the bloodstream. The other hormone is insulin. Its secretion occurs when the blood sugar level is too high. The faster a rise in blood sugar levels, the quicker insulin will be released.
In order to reduce blood sugar levels again, the glucose is then taken into the cell, where it will be accessible to the bloodstream. In addition, insulin activates the secretion of other hormones. It can be converted into it’s storable form, fat, by the unneeded glucose. Because of this principle, glucagon and insulin are called antagonists, i.e. opponents, but they actually compliment each other.
When losing weight, many diet concepts take advantage of the effect of glucose in the blood. The best known is the low-glycemic diet. This diet focuses on the insulin, because it prevents fat burning. Therefore, one should prevent blood sugar levels from rising too fast by avoiding carbohydrate-rich meals in order to maintain consistently low insulin levels.
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